You can see the use of science in each and every aspect of our life. Science is an essential element in daily life. We can’t escape from the importance of science and its uses in our daily life. Basic knowledge of science is mandatory for everyone as it makes life easier and open our mind in many ways. As science is completely based on facts and experiments so, it doesn’t change with time, basics always remain same. You can get explanation of everything through science from magic performed by magician to vehicles running by using hydrogen gas. Every new technology relied on science. Science and technology complement each other. Science deals with natural phenomenon on the basis of facts and gives rise to new technology which makes our life easier. Science always promotes curiosity and asking questions. Once Einstein said – Importance of Science in Our Daily Life Science is very essential in our daily life. We use science in day to day life. We wake up and use paste and brush which both are given by science. We use science in cooking, eating, clothing etc. Baking involves basic knowledge of science and baking machines such as oven, microwave are endowments of science. Can you imagine your life without electricity? If no, then u must know that electricity is also given by science. Examples of use of science in everyday life are as follows – We use cars, bike or bicycles to go from one place to another, these all are inventions of science. We use soaps, these are also given by science. We use LPG gas, stove etc. for cooking, these all given by science. Even the house in which we live is a product of science. The iron which we use to iron our cloths is an invention of science even the cloths we wear are given by science. Uses of Science in Different Fields Uses of science in different fields are as follows – In agriculture – In the field of agriculture, science has made its mark by contributing so much. In present days machines are available even for sowing the seeds on fields. Tractor, thresher, drip irrigation system, sprinkler irrigation system etc. all are given by science. All fertilizers are also given by chemical science. In medicine – The medical field is based entirely on usage of science. All the drugs are given by medicinal chemistry. Tools used in the medical field are also given by science. Machines such as stretchers, ECG machine, MRI machines even injections are invented by science. In transportation – All the vehicles are invention of science. Science has made the world a small place. You can reach from Kashmir to Kanyakumari in just few hours. Cycle, scooter, cars, aircrafts etc. all are inventions of science. We can transport goods easily and faster by the use of machines given by science. In communication – Science has made the world very small. You can talk to anyone anywhere in fraction of seconds. Telephones, mobile phones etc. all are the inventions of science. All these medium of communications are available at very low cost as well. So, all are in the reach of common man. Science has made is very easy and cheap to talk to someone using a mobile phone. In construction – Science is the base of all buildings constructed by us. Construction of buildings is completed based on the technology given by science. Machines used in the construction work such as motor graders, buildozers, backhoe loaders etc. given by science. In photography – Science has given many machines for photography. Now a days it’s very easy to click a picture. Camera has been inserted even in your small mobiles phones. Apart from these, science has given many machines which are useful in each and every aspect of our life such as computers. Thus, science has vast use in all fields of human life. It is of great importance to make our life easier it gives answer of all curiosities of us related to life. It gives wings to our imagination by its facts and theories. Contact us for more information.
Humanity is going through unprecedented global change. The systems that arose to organize societies in the last 400 years are breaking down — and now is the time to envision what will come next. I recall a talk that inspired me several years ago by the eclectic scholar, Dougald Hine where he explained that knowledge systems change in a nested manner. Some things (like the way we get news on a daily basis) can evolve quickly as new technologies alter media institutions on timescales of a few years or decades. Other things move more slowly. An example he gave for these historic sloths was the organization of academic disciplines at universities — some of which have been very slow to change in a hundred years (think about the presumed boundary between “hard” and “soft” science that is so resistant to leaving). Yet the slowest of all is in the archival institutions that we call libraries. It is to changes in these modes of information storage for long periods of time that we must look when paradigmatic change is upon us. Such a change is now upon us right now. The oldest libraries were storehouses of pottery. Data was painted onto clay pots to record important information about crop yields that go back thousands of years in places like Mesopotamia and ancient China. Later it was scrolling like those famously burned in the Great Library of Alexandria. More recently it has been bounded paper volumes that we call books, as the printing press gave rise to literate societies in the last few hundred years. Now we are fully in the digital age when it comes to information systems. And digital data is profoundly networked and ephemeral in ways that were simply not possible before. We can update the linkages and information content with ease that makes book printing look cumbersome by comparison. So it has become paradigmatic that libraries are “going digital” and building up a network ecology framework for organizing the knowledge of societies. What does this have to do with the look and feel of 21st Century science? In a word, everything. For humanity is now on the cusp of a planetary-scale crisis. According to earth system scientists at the Stockholm Resilience Institute, the Earth has now passed at least four of nine “planetary boundaries” that define a safe operating range for global civilization. We are fully in overshoot-and-collapse — living through an Easter Island type of instability on a planetary scale. At the same time, our social systems are in deep turmoil due to massive wealth inequality and the various forms of institutional decline that come with collapsing trust in an unequal world. This is apparent in the rise of authoritarian leaders in many countries in concert with a rapid drop of trust in authoritative expertise. Science is in crisis alongside the political and economic systems of the world that are in turmoil today. So we must envision a look and feel for science in the future that is networked, agile, and ever-evolving, relevant to the pressing issues of the day, and deeply, DEEPLY ecologically human. This last point bears elaboration. And a brief side comments about the fundamental importance of metaphors for organizing knowledge in societies. The guiding metaphor for the Modern Era was the “clockwork universe” of Enlightenment thinkers like René Descartes. I wrote more about this in an earlier essay, The Great Lie of Living on a Dead Planet. When we separate mind from body; humans from nature; and societies from their environments; we are doing so by presuming the Universe to be a giant mechanical device with no morality or soul inside. This metaphor gave rise to the mechanistic sciences of physics and chemistry in the 16th through 19th Centuries. Many of the systemic problems we face today — from climate change to political corruption — are traceable back to this illusion of separation between machines and living things. And so it should come as no surprise that the 20th Century was a period of ascendence for systems thinking in fields like ecology, computer science, quantum mechanics, and the study of social networks. Herein we can see the early shape of the new paradigm for 21st Century science. The guiding metaphor here is ecological networks. Living systems that function through their interdependence, networked relationships among functional parts, and dynamism of emergence that is not reducible. The science of the last few hundred years may necessarily have been reductionistic (breaking complexity down into manageably simple parts in order to make sense of it) but the science that is emerging will equally strongly require holism in order to make sense of the interwoven patterns that arise as global systemic behaviors. Let me demonstrate the difference with a concrete example from my work as the coordinator for birthing a new scientific society for the study of cultural evolution. I have worked with a team of researchers to map out the knowledge ecology of this field. We did this because a survey of our founding membership revealed a strong desire for knowledge synthesis across the divided silos of university departments. Research in psychology was not adequately being informed by (or informing) that which was taking place in anthropology or sociology. Historians were not in sufficient dialogue with archeologists or population ecologists. A political scientist hadn’t played well with economists. Biologists weren’t working closely with humanities scholars. What’s worse, researchers in each of these siloed fields have scarcely been in dialogue with each other either. According to one illustrative study, 90% of all peer-review journal articles have never been read! In another essay, I called this The Predicament of Knowledge and it is now chronic as humanity is clearly failing to apply all of this compartmentalized knowledge to the crises of living in a 21st Century world. The argument I made there was that we collectively have all the knowledge we need to solve every major social problem in the world. Yet we lack the capacity to synthesize and apply all this knowledge in real-time. This is where the Cultural Evolution Society comes into play. The mechanistic divisions of Modern-Era science have led to treating science as an industrial manufacturing process devoid of human sentiment or morality (think of all the animal testing done in cages throughout the last 400 years). What is needed to replace it is a living intelligence process guided by evolution for sense-making and collective learning. This requires a 21st Century understanding of (a) what it means to be a living thing, and more specifically (b) what it means to be human. Sciences of the future will need to be integrative and holistic, emergent and evolutionary, and profoundly informed by knowledge of their interdependencies. No more “Cartesian” separations. No more dividing knowledge into silos. No more treating humans as an industrial input into corporate machines. Instead, we need to apply the ecological principles of regeneration, resilience and thriving. Scientists of the future will work together as networks — an evolutionary step beyond the ad hoc interdisciplinary teams of the late 20th Century. Tools for synthesis will include group facilitation, scientific visualization, computer modeling and simulation, and iterative design practices. We will need to actively co-create in pluralistic communities where those trained in specific domains of knowledge are partnered with transdisciplinary scholars who specialize in facilitating knowledge synthesis. These are the new and improved generalists of a bygone era. They are fully human as networked ecosystems of people learning together using tools, theoretical frameworks, and social practices that are incentivized for collective intelligence. Critical for this science to emerge will be that it avoids its greatest current threat — a 21st Century version of the burning of Alexandria’s great library. We need our science to survive the potential collapse of global civilization in the next 50 years. Let this sink in. It is a very serious issue that is hardly on anyone’s radar at the moment. Yes, there is a crisis in peer-review publishing. Yes, there is a crisis in public understanding of science for policymaking. Yes, there is a crisis of impending ecological collapse of the biosphere. Yes, there is a crisis of anti-science demagogues replacing rigorous methods with ideology. Yet at the deep systemic level, there is a greater crisis of unraveling paradigms for knowledge systems as humanity goes through its next great transition as a species. It is here that the new sciences must emerge. It must not be based on a separation of theory and practice — for it will be the practices of working with, studying, and guiding the evolution of complex social systems that will enable the sciences to advance. And also what enables the social systems themselves to maintain the efficacy to continue their existence. These things are inseparable in reality and must be dealt with accordingly. Applying this back to the observation that started this essay, we must envision libraries of the future as networked living systems of interconnected human beings. The “digital divide” between those with access to the internet and those without is only one use for this phrase. Another is the deeper semantic separation presumed by disembodied rationality — that there is no digital without physical and all human knowledge is worthless if it fails to be embodied by human societies as social norms, behaviors, narratives, and institutional practices. The digital libraries of the future will be cyborgs… interwoven human-machine meshworks for active learning. The singularity is us as human beings. The look and feel of 21st Century science will be human through and through. There will be holism and integration; emotion and reason recombined in resonance with findings from the cognitive and behavioral sciences. And it will be ecological; embedded in human networks which are themselves embedded within physical and social geographies. Let us rapidly transform the look and feel of science to reflect its best face. Let it be systemic and integrative. Let it be moral and political. And let it be relevant and responsive to the crises we all face together on a daily basis in the real world. Onward, fellow humans.
There’s much that’s new and different about leadership, management, and communication in the digital age. There’s also significant continuity with earlier times. One might say: the principles endure, the applications change. What’s old and what’s new are both seen in the following list of 21st century leadership skills (one might as well have said 21st-century leadership traits, but the term skills better convey that leadership comprises capacities that can be learned, refined, cultivated, improved… and constantly updated to serve more effectively). The list that follows attempts to capture enduring leadership lessons within the unique, fast-moving circumstances of the early 21st century. Please share your views and share with others. Like everything today, it’s a work in progress, made better by collaborative input. 25 Essential 21st Century Leadership Skills 1. Leaders Serve. In the Information Age, everyone everywhere is potentially in a relationship with you (whether you choose it or not). A service mentality is not just an ethical plus—it’s required. 2. Cultivate Courage. Courage and sacrifice remain the foundation of leadership, service. The higher levels of service—and sacrifice—are the binding elements of effective leadership in all times and places. 3. Think in Terms of Relationships. Gaining advantage in isolated transactions cannot be the basis of a sustainable business model. Now every business is a relationship business. 4. Create Value. Value is not based on how long or hard you work, or on your commendable motivations, or what you think you deserve. It’s based solely on your customers’ judgment. Today, those you serve are empowered to seek out, compare, and measure value as never before. 5. Advance Your Customers’ Values to Create Value. In a time of customer empowerment and relentless commoditization, advancing the values of your customers can be a potent differentiator. Focusing on values is not a distraction from the hard facts of business. Today, values can create value. 6. Vision Remains the Foundation of Leadership. From the Bible to this very day, casting a vision remains an indispensable element of leadership. 7. Make Management a Vital Part of Your Leadership. Management is part of leadership. Effective leaders are effective managers. Effective managers are effective leaders. 8. Aim to be Best in the World. That’s right: in the world. Mediocrity is lethal. Best in the world is the only sustainable business model. In our digital age, people can seek out the best value from anywhere in the world. Resting on laurels, or settling for second-best has never been so hazardous. 9. Listen and Observe with the Intensity of an Artist. Listening is the master skill in a relationship-based world. An ideal is to learn to listen and observe with the focus of an actor, a writer, a painter. Merely hearing is as far from listening, as conversing at a coffee table is from presenting a speech to thousands. 10. Ask Questions. Refrain from Answers. The open ends of question marks invite engagement. The closed ends of periods are the equivalent of the body language of defensively crossed arms. Declarations fit naturally into transactions. Questions are the building blocks of relationships. 11. Master the Arts and Science of Influence. Internal and external stakeholders have greater leverage than ever before. The age of the boss is over. “The power to persuade” is now as necessary a skillset for corporate CEOs as politicians. 12. Recognize that Communication is Part of Everything You Do. Communication skills cannot be delegated or outsourced. You are your message. From new media to traditional meetings, effective 21st century leaders must master an ever-evolving range of communications expectations. 13. Collaborate to Create Value. The smartest person in the room is always the room. Think, listen, speak, and act accordingly. 14. Create a Stimulating Ecosystem. Have a personal board of advisors. Search out mentors. Comb history for “spiritual ancestors.” Connect with people of accomplishment through social media. Beware flooding your consciousness with a torrent of vacuous, popular culture effluvia. 15. Learn from Other Generations. What are you learning from various generations? Every generation now has a voice. Will you listen and learn? 16. Learn from Other Cultures. A world of customers and competitors and prospects and resources is just a mouse click away. Communicate and collaborate where they are–not where you are. 17. Learn from Public Failures and Mistakes. You’re less likely to have your falls hidden behind the walls of large institutions. Are you able to get off the mat, get back into the ring? Many of your missteps or misfortunes will be captured for eternity in all their digital glory. Get over it. 18. Cultivate an Experimenter’s Mindset. Innovation includes false leads and failures. Today’s failure may be the basis of tomorrow’s breakthrough. 19. Break Boundaries, Silos Wherever They Appear. Don’t let others’ limitations of imagination or experience or customs or organizational culture limit your capacity to serve. 20. Demand Optimism. Optimism—or negativity—can spread from a leader through her ranks faster than ever. Whether to be publicly optimistic is a leadership decision, not simply a matter of a one’s individual temperament or druthers. 21. Engender Enthusiasm. The universal spirit that flows through enthusiasm remains compelling. The very word is derived from the root, “the spirit of God in man.” Yet another breadcrumb reminder that leadership is, ultimately, a spiritual practice. 22. Be Relentlessly Adaptable. The value of your service is determined by your capacity to evolve in the rapidly unfolding circumstances of the early 21st century. Nonetheless, don’t flatter yourself that your challenges of change are the greatest in history. Thus far, they’re not comparable to those of the generations born at the dawn of the 20th century, for example. 23. Safeguard Your Physical, Mental, and Spiritual health. Your health constitutes the foundation of all your service. Not to maintain your physical health—especially as one becomes older—is to succumb to self-indulgence. Seen in this way, safeguarding your health is a moral duty of the highest order. 24. Think Like an Artist. Leadership is an art. Make every aspect of your experience a part of your evolution. 25. Achieve Integrity. The sum of your parts can be united into a whole that only you can create. Therein lies your calling. Contact us for more information.
For the past centuries, there have been countless developments and advancements in the world. Scientists and researchers have continued to discover new things and expand our understanding and knowledge of the natural phenomena happening around us. In the 21st century, there are thousands of scientific breakthroughs. These have helped in improving our way of living while some are the key to greater innovation in the future. In this article, we ranked the greatest scientific discoveries and inventions of the 21st century. Detection of Gravitational Waves Scientists considered this the greatest discovery of the 21st century. Let us go back to the time when Albert Einstein first predicted in his theory of relativity that time travel will be possible. Now, it has been proven by the recent findings. The LIGO project based in the United States has detected gravitational waves that could allow scientists to develop a time machine and travel to the earliest and darkest parts of the universe. This was the first time that they witnessed the “ripples in the fabric of space-time.” Evidence of Water on Mars The National Aeronautics and Space Administration confirmed last September 2015 that there is evidence proving the existence of liquid water on Mars. Using the imaging spectrometer of NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), scientists detected hydrated salts in different locations on Mars. During the warm season, the hydrated salts darken and flow down steep. However, they fade in cooler seasons. The detection of hydrated salts means that water plays a vital role in their formation. Robotic Body Parts Through the help of biomechanics and engineering, scientists have devised robotic body parts. The University of Twente has developed robotic arms that can aid those individuals affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This will allow patients to amplify residual function in the arm. They also applied Darpa’s Revolutionizing Prosthetics project of creating prosthetics to wounded US military personnel, in developing robotic limbs. Today, scientists are studying the viability of making these robotic body parts or exoskeletons controlled by the mind to help disabled individuals, survivors of stroke, and elderly people. T. Rex Tissue Paleontologists have discovered a partially fossilized and decomposing femur of a Tyrannosaurus rex which was believed to be 70 million years old already or a date closer to the biblical date of creation. Mary Higby Schweitzer of North Carolina State University and Montana State University found out flexible and transparent vessels. This soft tissue discovered is preserved because of the iron between the leg bones. The T.Rex tissue is very essential in determining the physiology of dinosaurs and studying their cellular and molecular structures. They have found out that dinosaurs are closely related to big birds, like the ostrich. Advancement in HIV Cure According to HIV.gov, there are over 36.7 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS, of which 1.8 million it is children. HIV/AIDS remains to be one of the deadliest diseases in the world. On the other hand, HIV treatment has been available in Germany for more than two decades already. Antiretroviral therapy allows HIV/AIDS patients to live longer. However, no definite cure is still discovered. In 2007, Dr. GeroHütter was the first one to successfully cure an HIV/AIDS patient named Timothy Ray Brown by transplanting bone marrow from an HIV-immune patient. Existence of Dark Matter In 2006, a team of researchers has found evidence that proves the existence of dark matter. They inferred the presence of dark matter by measuring the bullet clusters or the location of mass in the collision of galaxies. According to Maxim Markevitch of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, dark matter can be proven by the bulk of visible matter in the clusters that have been disconnected from the rest of the mass. According to NASA, it is still a complete mystery. What they can prove for now is that 68% of the universe is composed of dark energy. Sequencing Genome of Cancer Patient In 2003, scientists completed the sequencing of the human genome or genetic blueprint that points out the mutations leading to cancer. It took three years for them to finish drafting the three billion letters that compose the human DNA. The Human Genome Project helped scientists in treating a deadly type of skin cancer and understanding the genes involved in leukemia, eczema, and diabetes. Now, cancer genome sequencing is integrated into medical care facilities. It characterizes and identifies DNA or RNA sequences of cancer cells. Creation of Human Organs Stem Cell research has paved the way to greater access to organs, instead of waiting for donors or taking harsh medications. Scientists from Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School have discovered how to regenerate the function of human heart tissue through adult skin cells. Through stem cells, humans can grow another organ. This is associated with the regenerative nature of living organisms. Recently, various research all around the world enables the growth of fallopian tubes, the heart, the brain, lung, and kidneys, among others through stem cells. Water as Fuel German Cleantech Company has developed a futuristic machine that converts water into fuel. Through Power-to-Liquid Technology, they can convert water and carbon dioxide into liquid hydrocarbons which take the form of synthetic diesel, petrol, and kerosene. This technology was based on the Fischer-Tropsch process and solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOECs) which convert electricity to steam. In 2017, Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) and Berkeley Lab’s Materials Project also devised a technology that turns sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into fuel which can be a viable source of power, replacing coal, oil, and other fossil fuels. Face Transplants A face transplant is a medical procedure that replaces a person’s face using the tissues of a dead person. In 2005, Isabelle Dinoire of France was the first person to have a partial face transplant while the first full-face transplant happened in Spain in 2010. Face transplants have been popularly carried out in the United States, Spain, France, and Turkey. This is applicable for people with birth defects or disfigures caused by burns, disease, and trauma.
Successful universities the world over are deeply connected with the social, economic and political environment in which they serve. However, universities should also operate independently as they are not factories or political tools, and they do not need charismatic leaders the way armies and churches might. Universities are collectives, and open, critical discourse based on democratic principles is essential for their success. As part of their time-honoured compact with society, universities should not blandly surrender to outside pressures, but actively and critically engage with them. Social and political context There are an increasing number of national imperatives that universities need to consider in deciding how to position themselves. For instance, since the dawn of South Africa’s democracy, there has been a push to broaden access to higher education in order to accommodate more students with different prior experiences, different goals and ambitions, and different levels of preparedness. Importantly, transformation of our universities has included calls to diversify the professoriate and to change the culture of universities. The weak South African economy suggests that the country’s universities should prepare their students more directly for the job market. There are cries for a stronger focus on practical skills development, almost akin to vocational training. There is an expectation that academics and researchers should make more direct contributions to marketable innovations, and be more inventive with developing practical applications and solutions to everyday problems. Funding agencies call for research programmes with more direct relevance to South Africa. There are, thus, enormous pressures for curriculum reform, and invariably arguments for decolonisation, with all its political ramifications. Coupled to the above, a burgeoning agenda for African development is being set by the African Union’s Agenda 2063, and looking further afield, the global socio-economic and political environment for change is being defined fairly comprehensively by the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. These are further considerations that universities are being asked to take on board to frame their research and teaching programmes if they are going to be relevant in the future. Politicisation of research The challenges for science in the 21st century do not end there. A real problem today is that truth is increasingly being undervalued, and scientific research is becoming politicised, for example, in the context of climate change. This is a scourge that is spreading world-wide. The efforts required to advance knowledge for societal benefit are not always understood and appreciated by society, including by decision-makers. The need for an independent, critical academy is not always appreciated and, on the contrary, is often seen to be a threat by many autocratic regimes. It is becoming difficult to discriminate between real and bogus information ‘out there’ because much of the information on the internet has not been sufficiently tested for veracity and truth. Lies can be propagated at a phenomenal rate. For universities, which should pride themselves on uncovering the truth, this is debilitating. In this environment, it is also becoming more difficult to counter plagiarism and protect intellectual property – matters that are of profound importance for our universities. Most, but not all, citizens of the world have free and easy access to information, which begs the question: “Are our universities becoming less relevant?” They will be if educational and research systems are not adjusted. We certainly need more discussion on how universities should change, and this will remain a hotly contested area in planning for the future of universities for many years to come. Global challenges There is a growing number of substantive challenges in academia. Across a majority of disciplines, we are moving into the era of extremely large data sets, calling for smarter and more secure means of storing and transporting data, as well as accessing and mining data intelligently for research and decision-making. This means that an increasing number of researchers across many different disciplines, including the humanities and social sciences, need to become more computationally competent. In addition, these researchers need to be preparing to work in larger, multidisciplinary teams to resolve quantitative problems more effectively. While this need is set to grow, this transition is arguably not happening fast enough. The world-wide science system has become enormous, and it is proving to be extremely difficult to keep up with research outputs in one’s own narrow research area of interest, let alone more broadly. The flood of information is overwhelming and we need smarter ways to keep up, or else we run the risk of duplicating efforts and falling behind. On the topic of peer-reviewed publications, it has finally dawned on academics and universities that they should not be paying exorbitant costs to access publicly-funded research and in so doing enrich large corporations. The entire world of publications in this age of the internet is in a process of radical change. Academics need to seriously contemplate the pros and cons of open access, and actively participate in the global discussions currently taking place, for example, around the proposed European Plan S. Developing science responsibly There are enormous disparities in science around the world, which demand that we think more deeply about how we develop science more extensively on a global scale for the good of all of humanity. The big science questions need big – meaning expensive – research infrastructures. This calls for large, multidisciplinary teams and multinational collaborations. We must ask how we can participate more effectively, especially from the southern tip of Africa. The rest of Africa is falling behind because there has been relatively little commitment from many African countries to invest in scientific research infrastructure and in people development. This will continue to hold Africa back. South Africa is globally connected though the internet, which means that the country is also susceptible to international terror through breaches in cybersecurity. The ways in which some international agencies and governments are protecting themselves against cyber-attacks are top secret for obvious reasons, which means that many countries in the developing world are left in the dark and will need to figure out their own solutions. African countries and their universities need to invest in their own programmes to interrogate cybersecurity for their own well-being and national security. Open-ended, unfettered science in its purest form has, over the centuries, been pursued in the interests of understanding nature in a fundamental way, and long may that continue. Scientific ideas and discoveries have often been very successfully exploited for commercial gain and societal improvements, and much of the science system today the world over is designed to push scientists in the direction of more relevance. The applications of science coupled with critical thought have been essential in solving many problems facing society. Usually, that impact has been positive, but not always. There has been collateral damage and unintended consequences along the way; for example, plastics in our oceans, and other harmful environmental effects. The military has been a strong supporter of science in many countries, including during apartheid South Africa. Science has been driven in particular ways to gain superior might. Many authoritarian states, such as North Korea, have invested significantly in a very narrow set of scientific endeavours and technologies with a singular purpose in mind. Through the millennia, there has always been the potential for scientific outputs to be misused, from the time the simple domestic knife was invented. Science in the wrong hands can be catastrophic – and a climate for the misuse of science is growing. Limited global resources Some of the more difficult questions that academics need to think about relate to the consequences of the rapidly increasing global population and the stress this places on our resources and environment. This is already resulting in a power struggle for limited resources. The future of the human race depends on scientists finding more intelligent answers to difficult questions, and here researchers have a central role to play. With the rapidly increasing world population one can conclude that, purely from a statistical viewpoint, each life is becoming less significant. It should boggle the mind, then, to think about what this could imply in terms of the potential for increased unethical behaviour towards our fellow human beings, for example, in terms of mass exterminations, human experimentation and cruelty. We should think deeply about this and how academics can try to counter these tendencies in their work – by identifying the problem early on, and proposing solutions before the problem gets beyond our control. History will show that so much has been accomplished by so few with so little over the past 100 years. This period has been unprecedented in the history of the human race. It is difficult to believe that the electron was discovered just over 100 years ago, and through science and the applications of science, technology, industrialisation and commercialisation, and sheer ingenuity, humans have been able to harness the fullest potential of the electron to fundamentally change the way in which we live our lives, not only in a technical sense, but also in a social sense. This tiny particle has come to define our age, namely the electronic age. This stunning growth over a short period does raise unrealistic expectations that new scientific ideas and technologies needed to solve challenges in the 21st century will emerge just as easily, just as rapidly and just as cheaply, with the snap of a finger, so to speak. But that is not correct. Support for science Our universities are working under extremely tight fiscal constraints. Academics are being asked to do much more with much less at a time when our universities are under enormous pressures to be ‘world class’. Science needs much more support for the public good. In striving to be nationally responsive and world class, South African science must be connected with the global environment that frames science. We should be consolidating and setting the foundations to be world class. We need to be excellent in all aspects of the academic enterprise including our management, operations, teaching and learning, research and external engagements. Universities in South Africa have been in a state of stress for a while, and one wonders whether an era of stability is possible in which to focus on core functions. A successful and prosperous South Africa depends on a modern, scientifically literate and technically competent workforce, and here, universities have a central role to play. They are a precious resource. Stakeholders need to engage more intelligently and constructively with each other within and without the university, or the idea of the university will be under threat. We are but temporary custodians of the institutions we inherit. The hope and expectation are that we will build on the foundations that have been laid by others over the years, and to leave it in a better state than we found it.
Over the past few years, Cornell’s Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (EAS) has been making a concerted effort to modernize the undergraduate curriculum – aiming to prepare students to address some of the most pressing issues of our time. In an effort to specialize the new major in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, the department has developed four concentration areas. Students can now complete a concentration in Environmental Science, Geological Science, Ocean Science, and the newest concentration, Climate Science. The department continues to offer a separate major in Atmospheric Sciences with its focus on meteorological principles, available to CALS students. The different intricacies of the department are often confusing and can best be explained by the graphic below. The Geological Science concentration remained from the previous program, but the curriculum changed to focus on understanding processes and asking questions about how the planet works internally and how that impacts its surface process. The department introduced Earth Materials, a new 3000-level course, as part of the curriculum reform. From a process perspective, the new course covers some of the materials that had previously been taught in a more traditional and higher-level Mineralogy or Petrology course. Earth Materials offers students an earlier entry into the subject and is instructed by Esteban Gazel, director of undergraduate studies and associate professor in EAS. This course prepares students to identify minerals, understand their significance as a record of processes that resulted in the formation and evolution of our planet and other rocky worlds in the solar system. Lectures are complemented with labs where students will learn to identify minerals using crystallography and polarized microscopy techniques and introduce modern analytical methods such as mass spectrometry, and Raman and infrared spectroscopy, taking advantage of the new analytical facilities at EAS. Patrick Fulton, assistant professor in EAS, designed a new course called Geofluids, which focuses on the relationships between fluids and geologic processes. As part of this course, there is considerable attention given to the science of subsurface drilling and how wells and boreholes can be used to gain knowledge of the subsurface, and how the concepts learned can guide safe and successful well operations. “Beyond the broad applicability of the topics in this course, interest and excitement in this course stems from our ability to utilize in teaching and greatly benefit from the Cornell University Borehole Observatory (CUBO) – the 3km deep characterization hole for Cornell’s Earth Source Heat project that will be drilled on campus later this year,” says Fulton. The Environmental Science concentration is particularly appealing for students looking to enter the environmental job market immediately after graduation. The program is designed to provide students with practical skills to understand and solve major environmental challenges as well as prepare them for graduate school if that is their chosen path. According to Edward Conti, vice president, and principal geologist at EKI Environment & Water Inc. and advisory council member in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, the environmental industry is now a major employer of earth scientists, and the need for scientists trained in rigorous math and science curriculum continues to grow. “EAS has done a good job of creating a rigorous curriculum grounded in strong basic math and science,” says Conti. “This will prepare students well both for employment and for graduate school in specialty fields such as hydrogeology, hydrology, environmental chemistry, environmental engineering, and environmental policy.” Katie Keranen, associate professor in EAS, is developing a new experiential learning and project-based course on Hydrogeophysics that will be a key component of the Environmental Science Concentration. Students will acquire multiple types of data locally in this project-based course and will analyze and interpret the data in teams using standard software packages. Students will gain experience in methods commonly used in geotechnical and environmental studies, with applicability for either academic research or industry. The new Climate Science concentration highlights the new classes developed and faculty hired by the department to address this crucial research area and complements the climate change minor which is available through EAS. According to Natalie Mahowald, the Irving Porter Church Professor of Engineering, adding the Climate Science concentration allows the department to serve the many students interested in this area. “With the many newspaper articles about climate change’s potential impact on floods, droughts and wildfires, for example, as well as the many interesting research questions, more and more of our students want to dive deep into understanding the many facets of climate science.” Innovations have also come to The Earth System, a course requirement for all majors within the department that provides a background that covers everything from the Big Bang and early solar system development, deep time and origin of life, up through to impacts of climate change and methods used to better understand the Anthropocene. This year, Rowena Lowman, associate professor in EAS and instructor of the course, followed guidance given by Cornell’s Center for Teaching Innovation. One of the strongest cases made was that faculty should carefully reconsider timed exams, particularly ones that were a large component of the grade. A truly accessible teaching style would, ideally, ensure that the students learned the material through repeatedly using it rather than memorizing material for a timed, high-stress exam. “I certainly feel like I got to know a larger percentage of the students this past year, even if I didn’t get to know them quite as well as I do when we are in the same room,” says Lohman. “I hope to continue to learn about other tools that I can use to ensure that the full range of voices in the classroom can be heard.” Due to the global pandemic, all courses were adapted for the challenges of online and hybrid learning, but the department is looking forward to a full in-person experience next Fall. Overall, these changes to the curriculum and department as a whole will better prepare students to enter the world after graduation. The department is committed to providing a space for students to develop the skills needed to tackle the biggest threats to future generations. “We use the Earth as a natural laboratory to address fundamental questions about how nature works,” says Esteban Gazel. “This is important because solving the challenges of the 21st century, like climate change, more exposure to natural hazards, use of renewable energy, anthropogenic impacts to environmental quality, and the responsible use of critical elements all require scientists to understand the complexities of our planet.”
Most small to big clinics and physicians understand the importance of hiring qualified medical staff. Not only hiring the right people in the clinics provides smooth working, but it also increases patient satisfaction. If you are a physician or in the department for hiring medical staff, you have to find the best and qualified staff for the clinic. Some so many individuals are looking for a job position in medical places, but how will you find the right people. Also, it’s important to consider how to afford those employees? Let’s check out the best tips for hiring clinical staff. Create a plan: Before you post a job ad on a career website or take any other approach, make sure there is a plan on hiring the staff. It will be best to create an organizational chart to decide the positions and the ways they will communicate with each other. Mainly determine the main compatibility and the responsibilities of each position. Once these things are settled, start looking for employees. Post job ads: There are some good job boards where you can post the requirements for medical staffing. Job seekers checkers register for these websites and frequently search for jobs in these places. It’s one of the cost-effective ways to find clinical employees. Also, you can sort out the proper candidates through the job sites. Give specific ads: Giving ads on career websites is easy but you have to be specific about the requirements. This way you can choose specific candidates for the job. Provide straightforward titles and proper descriptions of the job responsibilities. Add the qualification, experience required for the position. Also, you have to mention the salary expectation part for the applicants. Use social media: Social media is a great place to get candidates for clinical staffing. If you are a physician and you need some good employees for your clinic, make sure you have a business account on social media platforms. This will not only help in the growth of the business but also will assist you to hire the best talents out there. Create a LinkedIn profile and post a job requirement there, and you will get better responses from qualified individuals. Facebook and other social media are also useful when you are looking to hire qualified medical staff. You can give ads, and discuss the responsibilities for the position. Ask for referrals: Networking is still important and it works well even in this digital age. If you have just started with medical staffing, it will not be possible to ask the new employees for referrals. However, if you have a good relationship with other doctors or their clinics, it’s better to ask there for potential candidates. They will help you, as they are also connected with other networks. Flexible work schedules: In today’s world, individuals seek flexibility in their work lives. For that, most companies offer flexible working conditions for job seekers. As a clinic, you might be open 24/7 or for a specific time, no matter what the working hours are, you can give add flexible time for the candidates. This will relieve the constant workers and other people will get a chance to work as well. For instance, you had some clinical staff who worked the entire day and they even did night shifts as well. For this, you can hire people who are willing to work at night and arrive at flexible times. This is applicable for day shifts as well. This way, more qualified individuals will apply for the job position. Offer best benefits: Offer competitive salary for the medical employees. But the benefits part doesn’t stop here, as you have to offer other feasible perks to them. Other than general perks like life insurance, retirement benefits, medical help, long-term disability, and paid time off, you can add some other advantages for the medical staff. You can add a vacation period, childcare, paid gym membership, and so on. Some clinics provide partial educational benefits, provide special events for the sake of their staff. Employees love these benefits and when you put them in the description, there will be a stream of applicants. Interview the candidates: It’s best to meet the candidates in person than only taking an interview through telephone. Although, in this time the trend of remote working has increased, in the case of clinics, this is not the scenario. This is because people will come to get aid from a medical place, and there they will require proper services. So when you shortlist the candidates for the positions in your clinic, call them for a face-to-face interview. This is the best way to know an employee, especially for medical staffing. Ask them relevant questions, and assess their working capability. You have to compare the communication of the telephone with the face-to-face interview. Also, ask them to bring their current CV, so you get a quick overview of their working experience. Set the budget: Hiring more employees means you have to provide them a salary every month, for that you must have increased demand in the clinic. Based on the reputation of the medical place, you have to hire a specific number of employees. Make sure you have a plan for recruiting proper talents and ensure that you can afford it. You have to start new workers the moment demand arises in the clinic. Otherwise, it will be hard for you to cope with the budget. Hire long-term employees: Employee turnover is an issue these days. This is the reason; you should hire workers that can work for a long time. To retain the staff, you have to ensure the best benefits for them. Provide better work opportunities and growth. Offer healthy work-life balance. Know the required laws: Before hiring medical staff, you must know the laws of recruitment. Familiarize with the recruiting regulations, and avoid queries regarding marital status, race, age, religion, children, or any other area that is close to protected classes. Opt for an HR service to avoid any hassle regarding salary and employee retention. The best you can do to hire medical staffing is through a recruitment agency. Make sure you have the proper title and description for the job opening.